13. srpna 2014 v 14:00 | Prof.PhDr.Rudolf Kohoutek,CSc.

The following are deemed to constitute problems in professional and study orientation and adaptation:

indecisiveness in the choice of career or school (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)
lack of interest in further study (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)
lack of interest in a specific profession (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)
laziness (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)
absence without excuse (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)
tendency to job hopping (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)
failure to observe sanitary rules at work (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)
failure to observe safety rules at work (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)
inadequate and unrealistic choice of career (study) in terms of ability or motivation etc. (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)
lack of involvement in the choice of career or study (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)
passive or indifferent approach to one's own future (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)
manifestation of difficult adaptation to the chosen field of study or profession (0
- 1 - 2 - 3)
manifestation of negative attitude to the chosen field of study or profession (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)
effort to change or leave the field (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)
tendency to professional liability within the specific profession (0 - 1 - 2 - 3)

PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION of schools and psychological counseling play an important role in the process of self-recognition and self-understanding and maturing for the choice (selection) of career (study). Psychological examination of the pupil's personality and prognosis of school and later on professional performance (comparison of the pupil's personality traits with a professiogram) is often very valuable. Most people can practice a variety of professions because they there is ample room for various compensations, outweighing of weaknesses by strengths and in particular learning of various specific professional skills and routines.
Information on the results of a psychological examination may play an important role in the process of teachers getting to know the pupil, as well as the process of the pupil's self-recognition and self-evaluation. a pupil who understands himself/herself well is more likely to adapt well than a pupil with a poor level of self-recognition and self-understanding. Self-recognition and self-understanding basically mean that one can precisely describe one's strengths, weaknesses, experience, requirements and goals, can predict one's behavior and manage and control one's behavior more easily. Self-recognition and self-understanding contributes to an appropriate self-acceptance which is one of the goals of psychological counseling. After all, counseling strives to inform the subject of examination of the level of his/her individual personality traits with a view to psycho-correction and self-education of his/her interpersonal relations, the relationship to himself/herself and success in the chosen profession (or study).
People who are more cognizant of their personality and work environments make better career choices than people who are less well informed. The adequacy of career choice is also partly determined by age because passage of time offers more opportunities to gather information. People with more adequate career choices posses more differentiated knowledge of professions and are aware of professiographic requirements of individual professions.
Problems in professional and study orientation and adaptation often occur in infantile, immature children with infantile personality traits.
Ondřej Janovec (2009) notes than young people are put under an escalating pressure during study, study requirements are growing, the number of highly specialized study programs is also on the rise. In the world of great possibilities and opportunities where a young woman or man can choose a field tailored to his/her abilities and wishes, young people are sometimes "confused" and unable to find their bearings in the offers and alternatives related to further study which thus shape their paths for the near future. Whether this situation is caused by indecisiveness in their choices or lack of interest in their future fate, the people around them should intervene and help the young man/woman in his/her self-recognition and choice of study field corresponding to his/her ideas, as well as abilities and skills. There are many specialized facilities offering career advice. For some people, it is sufficient to hint at various alternatives while others need several sessions to arrive, with the expert's assistance, at the recognition of themselves and their abilities, and to realize whether their ideas and wishes are realistic.
Advice focusing on assistance in the education and upbringing of children and career and study orientation has been on offer within our educational system since the 1960s. It was provided for in Decree No. 130/1980 Sb. of the Ministry of Education of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. In 2005, a new decree on the provision of advice at schools and educational counseling facilities (No. 72/2005 Sb.) entered into force.
Pedagogical and psychological counseling centers provide in particular comprehensive pedagogical and psychological examination of children and adolescents. Most frequently addressed issues include the identification of causes of learning and behavioral difficulties, career and study orientation (career advice), etc. a special type of educational counseling centers is represented by counseling centers for special psychology which work with pupils with health handicaps. These provide special pedagogical and psychological advice to children with impaired sight, hearing, mental or physical handicap, help prepare individual educational plans for integrated pupils and provide methodological support to schools.
Counseling provided directly at schools can be considered the most important element in the prevention of educational and pedagogical problems. Every pupil or student should enjoy suitable conditions both for his/her education and the development of the personality-linked qualities of his/her life. Primary and secondary school principals are responsible for the quality of school counseling. Pedagogical and psychological counseling is usually procured by a teacher - career advisor, in-house prevention methodologist, in-house special educator, psychologist from a pedagogical and psychological counseling center or an in-house psychologist. The counseling team at the school ought to identify pupils, students and entire classes at risk, in particular with a view to prevention of school failure and undesirable behavior. On the other hand, the counseling team should provide support in the choice of an educational path which leads to career success, to support and integrate children with special educational needs. These are usually extremely gifted pupils or pupils with developmental learning disorders, sometimes also individuals coming from other cultural environments. All those require individual support in the modification of educational method, or professional help in the design of an individual educational plan.
As the question of future career is sometimes a difficult one for primary school pupils, the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs and the National Educational Fund came with the idea of a calendar which would help pupils in their last year decide "where to go from there". The calendar was first issued in 2001. The calendar was designed in order to create a basic material which would serve as a basis for decision-making and facilitate discussion on future careers between pupils, teachers, parents and career advisors.
To decide on future career is very difficult for a young person, and his/her choice may significantly influence the entire further future life of the young girl or boy. Not all young people certainly give their ideas a long-term consideration and are able to imagine what exactly their chosen field and profession involve.
A mandatory consultation of the pupil's ideas of his/her future choice of career or school with a career specialist competent to assess whether the young person's plans are realistic and what the prognosis is therefore desirable.
Re-education and psychotherapy of difficulties
Re-education refers to special pedagogical methods which develop or correct impaired functions and activities.
Behavioral and experiential difficulties must be given special attention because their early identification and intervention may mean that the development of serious behavioral disorders, personality disorders and illnesses in children and youth can be arrested. The educator is often the first person who is able to recognize various peculiarities, behavioral and experiential difficulties and disorders which indicate a threat to the normal, healthy mental development of the pupil (student) and consequences for his/her social integration. By alerting specialists (psychologists, psychiatrists etc.) to the problems and assisting in the resolution of the problems in cooperation with those experts, the educator actually performs depistage and prevents further escalation of the difficulties. Children with such behavioral and experiential difficulties require non-standard, often more tolerant and truly individual approach from the educator, still ultimately with not very satisfactory or even unsatisfactory outcome, especially with a view to the growing number of problem children in recent years. Problem children and youth could in many cases be diagnosed as children and youth with difficulties. Difficulties may generally be rectified either by psychological means, or by special pedagogy or therapeutic and pedagogical means.
Psychotherapy as a method and technique of treatment may generally be rational, suggestive, abreactive, training, imagination or combined, individual or group.
Rational psychotherapy offers adequate, logical explanation comprehensible tothe client, advice (persuasion), explication and clarification of the substance and causes of problems and recommendation of measures and procedures in the area of mental hygiene. It may be supplemented with long-term regulatory or psychagogic guidance towards healthy life and work style and an adequate value system. It is close to education and mental hygiene.
Suggestive psychotherapy and hypnotherapy offers one-off or systematictherapeutic suggestions which may either be applied directly in hypnosis or, in a situation of mere wide-awake rapport in less hypnable individuals. It does not primarily appeal to the logical thinking and actions of the client, but rather on the client's emotivity and suggestibility. Some clients respond better to authoritative, "fatherly" suggestions of the therapist, some to more permissive, convincingly applied "motherly" suggestion accompanied by social support.
Abreactive psychotherapy, or rather abyssal abreactive psychotherapy (AAP), orrather regression therapy, employs associative memories of mental and psychosomatic problems experienced by the person in the past in stressful and traumatizing situations when the person was in a state of narrowed consciousness or even unconsciousness to induce abreaction. In some cases, various psychopharmaceuticals inducing a state between wakefulness and sleep are used. Narcotics which can be inhaled are also available. Tensions, anxieties and fears are released in a controlled fashion. Also abyssal abreactive psychotherapy or regression therapy.
Training psychotherapy consists of cognitive behavioral and descent exercisetechniques and programs. It involves for instance systematic desensitizing exercises in gradually aggravating adverse conditions.
Principles designed to strengthen introspection, self-confidence and effort of will focusing on self-correction (the ability to correct one's own mistakes and insufficiencies) are applied in order to improve mental health. The clients learn to face obstacles, not to bow down in front of them and not to succumb to them. They exercise to improve their muscle tone, learn to walk upright, proudly. Autogenous training is also employed.
Imagination psychotherapy techniques. Unhealthy attitudes and reactions aregradually reduced and clients guided towards adult, responsible and mature actions. The Katathym imaginative psychotherapy (KIP) developed by Hans Carl Leuner (1997) can also be used. It is a technique of controlled daydreaming based on abyssal and psycho-dynamically oriented therapy the theoretical bases of which are derived from Jung's analytical psychology and psychoanalysis. It is based on the presumption that the content of day dreams reflects, on a symbolic level, preconsciousness, unconsciousness and inner conflict (Svoboda, 2003)
A combined eclectic and integrating psychotherapy is prescribed at the discretionof the psychotherapist involved (Kratochvíl, 2006). For instance, rational psychotherapy is combined with relaxation techniques (using various discs as well), individual psychotherapy is combined with group therapy. Art therapy is also employed.
Eclectic-synthetic and integrating concept of psychotherapists treating difficulties is also recognized as possible.
If we wish to identify the correct individual type, or rather re-educational approach, the right type of educational incentives, stimulation, motivation and activation of the child, we first need to realize what type of behavioral difficulty, behavioral or personality disorder we are dealing with. The types of educational stimulation used for children with a complex personality will differ from those used for pupils with reduced or disharmonious mental faculties, minimal brain dysfunction, neurotic or psychopathic children, etc. a differentiated approach has to be applied to form positive attitudes and personality traits in different types of problem children.
Impaired motor skills may affect a number of school abilities, skills and performance. The child may struggle with the selection of activities in physical education due to physical clumsiness, integration into the group, clumsiness during games due to poor fine motor skills, lower agility of organs of speech, all of which affect communication, self-perception of the body and space, and last but not least, causes writing difficulties.
Deficits in cognitive functions are manifested in connection with motor skills. These include for instance insufficient development of graphomotorics which may be manifested by slow writing, difficulty in emulating the shapes of letters. The child may further struggle with geometry and other subjects requiring at least some degree of manual skill. Motor skills are one of the tools of cognition, allow us to handle objects, and thus serve as a basis for the understanding of mathematical operations.
Serfontein (1999) advises us how children with gross and fine motor difficulties and disorders may appear to teachers, and offers certain practical solutions.
Children with gross motor difficulties or disorders seem clumsy, ungainly, their movements uncoordinated. They can hardly compete with their peers during physical education classes, and in the classroom, they tend to "stumble" over desks, chairs and other furniture. This goes hand in hand with self-depreciation and sense of inferiority. Gross motor skills concern all muscle groups, the ability to move various parts of the
body in a controlled fashion and to coordinate movements depending on external and internal factors, such as gravity force, side orientation and gravity center of the body. The aim of the exercises is to teach the child to move fluently and efficiently, and last but not least, to improve the child's spatial orientation and self-perception of the body. a child with a gross motor skill disorder needs a tailored exercise regimen. Including such child in group exercises and games is not advisable at first. The teacher should focus on overcoming the specific problem troubling the child.
Teaching methods designed to improve gross motor skills include basic exercises, such as walking backward, forward and to the sides. The child follows a straight, zigzag, broad or narrow route, may be required to negotiate various obstacles while keeping his/ her arms in a certain position. a more demanding activity for children with gross motor skill disorder is represented by rope skipping which combines both technique, rhythm, balance and coordination of movement.
Pupils with fine motor skill difficulty or disorder usually have problems with the handling of objects and activities requiring precise fingerwork. Their problems are manifested in writing, drawing, tying of shoelaces, buttoning, joining of objects and cutting with scissors. Handiwork and drawings of such pupils resemble work of much younger children. Some may be very gifted in terms of gross motor skills but their fine motor skills tend to be below average.
In this context, Serfontein (1999) proposes activities such as tracing, pouring water into a vessel, cutting with scissors, buttoning and tying of shoelaces which help develop fine motor skills and coordination. For older children, embroidery is an example of a suitable activity.
Teachers and parents need to select age-appropriate exercises for the development of motor skills. Pupils at senior primary school ought to be given more difficult exercises, or simple exercises ought to be made more demanding.
Correct development of motor skills includes self-perception of the body. According to Serfontein (1999), this notion refers to the recognition of one's own body and its abilities. The activities are conceived in such a way so as to help the child develop correct ideas of the position and function of individual body parts. They include the naming of body parts. The child makes a life-size outline of his/her schoolmate with chalk on the ground or with pencil on a sheet of paper. The children then swap their roles in terms of tracing. The pupils draw in details into the outlines of their own bodies
- facial features, fingernails, etc. Cracking a puzzle. Pantomime. The children mimic various professions and activities - a bus driver turning the steering wheel, a policeman directing traffic, a postman delivering mail, and a chef busy in the kitchen.
The notion of a body scheme which is, according to Kotasová (2000), used by authors studying processes at the root of comprehensive motor action, is related to this. They face the complexity of relations between the motor, gnostic a emotional systems, and try to explain how the coordination between the systems takes place in the course of motor action. On a more general level, this notion can be viewed as an effort to capture and describe, based on the achieved level of cognition, the diversity and specificity of relations between physical (neuro-physiological basis of the execution of motor reaction) and mental (gnostic and emotional component of a motor act) attributes of a motor expression of the individua.


KOHOUTEK, R. Patopsychologie a psychopatologie pro pedagogy. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2007. 260 stran. ISBN 978-80-210-4434-0.

KOŠČO, J. a kol. Poradenská psychológia. Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateĺstvo, 1987.
446 stran. 057-371-87 PPS.

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