2.The history and present in career counselling

24. května 2012 v 13:32 | Prof.PhDr.Rudolf Kohoutek,CSc.

The first Czech post-war psychological consulting centre was opened in 1958
in Brno. Its asset was that it re-established the tradition of broad co-operation of teachers,
physicians and psychologists (including co-operation in research activities). Since
its establishment the centre was also an educational facility of the Department of
Psychology and Pedagogy of the Faculty of Arts of J. E. Purkyně University in Brno.
Originally the consultation centre was economically and operationally affi liated to the
detention children's home in Brno and later came under the division for education of
the National Committee of Brno. Professionally and methodically it was managed by
Vilém Chmelař (1892-1989) and Boleslav Bárta (1929-1991) from the Department of
Pedagogy and Psychology of the Faculty of Arts of UJEP in Brno.

From the very beginning the centre's scope of activities was very broad. It was
engaged in children, young people (also university students) and adults. In co-operation
with the Department of Pedagogy and Psychology of the Faculty of Arts of UJEP
it carried out (in 1959-61) relatively extensive research activities in the fi eld of career
education and choice of career (the research confi rmed the success of the rectifi cation
of educational problems by means of developing special-interest activities focused on
professional orientation, and methods were elaborated to discover attitudes to career
etc.). Valuable were experiences in providing practical career guidance based on psychological
investigations. The Brno centre also helped to develop similar centres in the
territory of Moravia.
1 If we mention the Brno University before 1990 we use its then name UJEP (University of J. E. Purkyně)
which today is the name of the University in Ústí nad Labem.
These centres were always engaged in educational activities (holding professional
lectures and seminars for educational counsellors, parents, teachers, instructors
and counselling co-operators). Their popularisation and publication activities in the
media, radio and TV were also extensive. If required they conducted research in the area
of applied research, not only in career orientation. For instance, the effect of pre-school
collective education on the child's mental development was objectively and closely explored.
Since 1959 the Board of the Ministry of Education and Culture of the
Czechoslovak Republic had several times dealt with the preparation of young people
for their choice of career. On the basis of Resolution 21/60 of the Board of the
Ministry of Education career education was experimentally launched in school year
1960/61 in 30 selected schools in the CSR. The experiment was assessed at a session
on 10-11 April 1961 in Bratislava.
The session was attended by psychologists, educators and physicians. Special
attention was devoted to vocational orientation. The experiment conducted at selected
schools confi rmed that the idea to assign a specialised worker at the school to coordinate
career counselling was correct. The type of qualifi cation of this person should be new
- a career counsellor (originally a career and psychological counsellor or psychology
counsellor). At the same time a tentative study plan for career counsellors at university
departments of psychology was proposed.
The resolution of this working session said: "In conjunction with the extension
of the number of psychological counsellors to open psychological counselling in the
individual districts on the basis of experience of the existing clinics and careers service."
The attendants of the session came to the conclusion that in the area of career counselling
the session was a successful beginning to co-operation between psychologists and
teachers and physicians as well as representatives from the sphere of industry.
In 1961 the Ministry of Education instituted a central committee for career counselling
and began to devote attention to the education of talented students (although at
the same time they warned against elitism), to problematic backward pupils and young
The committee issued directives on the development of a system of education
counselling at elementary (1962) and secondary (1963 schools and measures in the area
of scientifi c and scientifi c-research activities.
Experimental post-gradual studies of career counsellors of elementary schools
were launched at the Faculty of Education of Charles' University in Prague in co-operation
with the Psychological Institute of Charles' University in the school year 1965/66.
At the same time studies of career counselling were opened at the Department of
Psychology of the Faculty of Arts of UJEP in Brno as post-gradual studies for graduates
of university teaching education and as university courses for those who were not.
Very important for the further development of psychological educational counselling
was the institution of the Research Institute for Psychology and Pathopsychology
of the Child in Bratislava in 1964 as an institution of the commission (later ministry)
of education. The sphere of activities was regional in the area of child psychology
for Slovakia and in the area of child pathopsychology for the entire CSSR. The
establishment of the institute was connected with the development of activities of the
Psychological Educative Clinic in Bratislava which since its establishment in 1957 had
not only been a centre of psychological, diagnostic and counselling care of the family
and school but gradually to a greater extent it undertook the solution of scientifi c
issues of development of the normal as well as the disturbed child. The new institute
also provided methodical assistance to the emerging psychological-educational facilities.
The Research Institute for Psychology and Pathopsychology of the Child also published
the important Czechoslovak professional and scientifi c magazine Psychology and
Pathopsychology of the Child.
The periodical Educative counsellor launched in 1964 had a certain impact on
the exchange of practical professional experiences among the counsellors and providing
theoretical information. The initiative to found the magazine came from Bratislava (the
credit goes to Oskár Blaškovič) but in the course of preparations of the fi rst issue the
Ministry of Education and Culture moved it to Prague. The fi rst editor-in-chief of the
Educative Counsellor was Jan Doležal (1902-1965), the then head of the Department of
Psychology of the Faculty of Arts of Charles' Univerity and after he died (15 January
1965) it was taken over by Marta Klímová.
The organisers of psychological counselling (J. Koščo, V. Chmelař, O. Blaškovič,
J. Hvozdík, M. Bažány, B. Bárta and others) were interested in creating an integrated
system of institutions of psychological counselling, i.e. such a system the internal structure
of which would horizontally embrace the entire scope of psychological issues. One
of the stimuli for the application of psychology in practice was the idea of development.
For instance Levitov, Vygotskij, Rubinštejn, Wallon, Piaget, Super, Stavěl, Chmelař and
others applied the developmental concept in their psychological theories. The central
cornerstone was the theory of developmental assignments which specifi es the basic
spheres of problems which virtually all individuals encounter: starting school, training
and education (including universities), choice of career, choice of partner, profession,
career, leisure time, parenthood, retirement, putting efforts into active old age, preparation
for death etc.
Vertically the system presents various levels of demands for psychological services.
In 1967 the fi rst instruction of the Czechoslovak Ministry of Education was issued
(29 March 1967, Ref. No. 4685/67-I/2) "On the institution of regional professional
psychological educative workplaces". As a consequence of the instruction a number of
new establishments emerged, especially in Bohemia (incl. Prague where the fi rst director
was Vladimír Hrabal).
In 1967 the Laboratory for Social Research of Young People and Career
Counselling was established in Prague at the Faculty of Education of Charles' University
originally headed by František Kahuda (later by Marta Klímová). The Institute
for Social Research of Young People and Career Counselling emerged from this
In 1968 at the Faculty of Arts of Komenský University in Bratislava the Institute
of Psychology of Career Development and Counselling was established (managed by
Josef Koščo) which in 1970 was again incorporated as a department of the Psychology
Institute of Komenský University.
The Institute of Psychology of Career Development and Counselling in
Bratislava methodically managed and professionally trained the staff of the regional
careers centres and through them also the careers counsellors at elementary and secondary
schools. This is also the beginning of university career counselling.
The representative of the offi cial Czech conception of counselling was Marta
Klímová, professor of the Faculty of Education of Charles University in Prague. She
maintained that since the establishment of the central committee for career counselling
at the Ministry of Education of CSR (in the 1960's) there were major discrepancies
between Czech and Slovakian professionals in terms of the conception of counselling.
It was seen in the disputes over the name of the counselling system; however it was not
only a matter of terminology, but a matter of the conception.
Marta Klímová always enforced the name educational counselling indicating
social practice, i.e. education which the counselling system should serve, while its opponents
(particularly in Slovakia and Brno) enforced the title psychological educational
workplace in order to highlight the main discipline of the system. Klímová considered
that highlighting the case studies of psychologists and exclusive use of the casuistic
or clinical method as erroneous. She also pointed out that the tendency to separate the
professional orientation, in terms of the concept and organisation, from the total process
of forming the child's personality as it was done (in her opinion) in Slovakia, was
unsuitable. In her opinion the result of highlighting the importance of psychology in
educational counselling in the early 1970's was that the principles of psychology were
given preference over the specifi c tasks of various areas of social practice which require
psychology. She criticised the Slovakian proposal of constituting a government body
which would administer counselling work with the individual. In fact, in Slovakia there
was a government committee for counselling issues whose secretary was K. Adamovič
(1934-1996). According to M. Klímová this went against the basic principles of philosophy
and social and human sciences and was also politically and objectively wrong. The
negative feature of Klímová's conception was also a retreat from the biodromal (or lifespan)
and supra-ministry orientation of the original psychological educational care.
The new terminology in the names of educational counselling centres appeared
for the fi rst time in 1972 in offi cial Czech materials elaborated by F. Zeman from the
Czechoslovak Ministry of Education. The annex of the resolution of the Czechoslovak
government No. 27/72 on the proposal to establish a system of counselling care for
children, youth and family for the fi rst time mentions educational and psychological
counselling centres and not psychological educational workplaces or workplaces for
psychological educational care.
The offi cial instruction of 2 April 1976 which codifi ed this new terminology
was issued on 28 May 1976 and was called Instructions on the System of Educational
Counselling in the Field of Activities of the Ministry of Education of the CSR (ref. no.
8172/76-201). These instructions helped to enforce the position of specialists in educational
counselling. These specialists occupied managerial functions in counselling.
For instance we consider that it is wrong to involve non-psychologists in the application
of psychological diagnostic methods regardless of the fact that allegedly some of
them achieve good results. That is to say that the replacement of psychologists in practice
by laics always presents some degree of danger. We even heard an incorrect opinion that
even "trained monkeys" can apply psychological methods and that trained secondaryschool-
educated laboratory technicians would do when applying psychological methods.
In our opinion it is also wrong that some non-psychologists as directors of educational-
psychological workplaces and other, for instance special pedagogy schools, tend
to overstep their competencies, they order the qualifi ed psychologists which methods
they should use and they even correct or modify their professional conclusions.
In principle the guidance centres remained to be scientifi c-practical, operative,
routine, methodical and explorative units which provided concrete service primarily to
schools and extra-curricular educational facilities and families. They also elaborated
results of their own routine research activities and they were engaged in the development
of diagnostic and remedial methods and prevention of behavioural disorders. In
fact many guidance services worked on the basis of generalisation of clinical (casuistic)
practice. (It does not apply to psychological counselling only, but also to counselling in
health service: pediatrics, internal medicine, oncology etc.).
Specialisation of counsellors in the respective departments of the centre enables
deeper penetration into the scope of problems. Spatial closeness and working with other
staff members of different specialisations gives the opportunity for consultations and
joint team solution of the case, and/or to fl exibly turn over the case to another specialist
if need be. A central uniform case documentation which is essential for such care in its
complexity provides abundant research material important for the practical educational
process as for theory and for the management of the society.
Exceptionally important is counselling of problem youth. We have in mind
a diversiform group of children and young persons whose common denominator is
that their social incorporation brings about many problems and that they require
special approach which is different from the approach to the majority of the population.
Here we place intellectually backward or defective children or juveniles and
children and young persons suffering light brain dysfunction but normal intellect,
children and young persons showing dissocial, asocial and antisocial behaviour,
children and young persons with limited working ability. With young people suffering
a permanent somatic defect which results in limited working ability the object of
the psychologist's interest is not the defect itself, but how the individual psychically
adapts to it and the specifi cities of the psychical reactive ability of the individual to
the handicap. If the mental handicap is permanent it is particularly a matter of how
to psychologically "measure" the defi cit and the consequences it has for placement
in the school and vocation. The way to a considerable reduction of various maladaptations
is solely to understand the regularities of their origin and their course and
on this based prevention.
Integration of the problems of the choice of career with educational problems is
in accordance with the narrow connection of problems of all educational-psychological
aspects of training the children and young persons. No matter what actual dominating
partial problem the psychologist resolves with the child or young person he must handle
it in connection with the other problems and with regard to the overall structure and dynamics
of the individuality of the concrete child or young person and with regard to the
overall psycho-social context of his/her hitherto and prospective development.
It still remains an arduous problem to implement co-operation and co-ordination of
the activities of school counselling with the health care institutions (school health service,
child psychiatry, youth medicine), with bodies of the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs
(labour economics, mobility, fl exibility of manpower, labour exchange and social security)
and with the planning bodies and other involved sections (Ministry of Justice etc.).
The co-ordination bodies of counselling care of children, youth and family established
by the Ministry of Education of CSR on 13 March 1973, ref. no. 7758/73-210 had to
provide functionally integrated counselling. However, the autonomist tendencies of the individual
ministries failed to be mastered. In the course of time their activities were inhibited.
Counselling has a number of components which should correlate in terms of
functional co-ordination and co-operation.
In the first place they are counselling activities:
social legal;
special pedagogy;
social pedagogy;
Educational counselling activities are closely connected, in the fi rst place, with the
school and the key role of the teacher in the educational process. Naturally this does not
exclude the part of partial educational activities and the part of pedagogics in the system
of counselling centres (e.g. didactic diagnoses and rectifi cation of didactic defi cits, advice
concerning concrete methods of the child's homework, rectifi cation of dyslexia and dysgraphia,
speech therapy - applying training and therapeutic pedagogical methods in cases
of speech disorders, methodical guidance of counsellors, methodical visits to schools,
co-operation in the guidance of psycho corrective and ortho-psychagogical groups, cooperation
in art-based education and therapy, art-therapy, bibliotherapy, musikotherapy,
co-operation in the organisation of holiday camps for problem children etc.).
Problem spheres in which the counselling-oriented pedagogical-psychological
centres were engaged from the very beginning can be divided into four groups:
psycho-didactic problems;
psycho-social maladaptation;
problems in psycho-social relationships;
problems of careers and study education.
The psycho-didactic problems include issues of the preparedness of the school,
teaching and study styles, problems of partial defects and disorders of gnostic functions,
didactic retardation due to extra-intellect and intellectual reasons, exploring the causes
of failure (at secondary schools and universities), problems associated with care of talented
individuals, differentiation of pupils in classes, psychological assessment of the
effectiveness of teaching methods, guidance to optimal self-education.
The correlation between the results of studies and higher intelligence is relatively
not very close. Especially for university students the extra-intellectual factors are evidently
very important. At the Faculty of Education UJEP in Brno Milada Hradecká and Grizelda Valová
(1974) discovered (N = 182; 38 males, 144 females) that the average IQ in Amthauer's
IST test was 103.4. In Raven's progressive matrices the IQ of 83.5 % was above 110.
The psycho-social maladaptations include diffi culties, neuroses, disorder
and disharmony of the personality, failure in profession or studies based for instance
on poor identifi cation with the subject of study and following intellectual passivity.
Hradecká and Valová (1974) discovered that the average neuroticism of students of the
Faculty of Education UJEP in Brno was 12.01. Using the Eysenck personality questionnaire
Libor Míček (1966) discovered on average 11.3 neurotic symptoms in 113 male and
324 female students of the Faculties of Art, Natural Sciences and Education of UJEP in
Brno. The average university female student had 12.4 neurotic symptoms.
Problems in psycho-social relations are cognition and formation of relationships
in the study group and teacher-pupil relationships, relations among members of
the teaching staff in terms of their infl uence on the pupils, family-school relationships,
relations among siblings, between students and parents, relationships among parents
in terms of the educational consequences. This area also includes social-psychological
aspects of managerial work in the school in terms of the school "atmosphere" and its
impact on the pupil and student.
Psychological issues of careers education and choice of career include longterm
monitoring of the development of traits of the pupil's personality with regard to
how he will make his mark in studies or profession in the future, finding and forming
individual interests in a career. The course of adaptation to the selected studies and later
assertion in the profession is monitored by means of catamnesis.
Each person tends to give preference to a certain group of similar activities and actually
in this way to incline to a corresponding grouping, bunches of related careers. Sometimes
the person's physical, sensory or other handicap forces him to take up this preference.
Job performance affects the development and maturation of a number of personality
traits (e.g. industriousness, willingness, initiative, diligence, precision etc.).
Most people can occupy a number of various professions because there are great
possibilities of compensation, of evening out the shortcomings with assets and particularly
the possibilities of training specifi c professional skills and habits.
In many aspects the theoretical bases of Holland's theory recognised at the
present time link up with the previous general principles of Donald Edwin
Super's (1910-1994) theory of occupational development which were formulated
in 1953 into the following ten principles:
People differ in their abilities, interests, traits and personalities.
By virtue of these characteristics each person is qualifi ed for a number of occupations.
Each occupation requires a characteristic pattern of abilities, interests and personality
traits (professional profi le) with tolerances wide enough to allow some
variety of individuals in a number of occupations.
Vocational preferences and competencies of people change with time and experience.
These factors then have a considerable infl uence on the choice of future
career and initial adaptation in the occupation.
The process of choice of concrete career consists of development and dynamics
through several life stages: (a) imagination stage; (b) stage of pre-choice; (c)
phase of realistic pre-professional choice of career; (d) phase of adaptation in
The nature of professional development of the individual is infl uenced namely
by: (a) the socio-economic standard of the parents; (b) intellectual powers; (c)
personality traits of the individual; (d) opportunities in which the individual fi nds
Systematic infl uencing of the individual's abilities, aspirations, interests and selfconfi
dence may signifi cantly shape the professional orientation of the individual
in the respective stages of his development.
The process of career development is a process of gradual self concept.
The process is a compromise process based on self-estimation and estimation of
other people; a compromise between the self concept and reality with which we
are constantly coping.
Work satisfactions and life satisfactions depend on the extent to which an individual
fi nds adequate outlets for abilities, interests, personality traits, and values
in occupation and personal life.
Theories which distinguish the personality types of the employees in relation
to the main types of work environment are very valuable; for instance the theory of
J. L. Holland who distinguishes the following environments:
motor - agricultural workers, machine operators, pilots, truck drivers, carpenters,
masseurs, repairers, dressmakers, painters, bricklayers, founders, excavator
operators, electricians, heating engineers etc.;
supportive - for instance teachers, counsellors, social workers, diplomats;
conformable - offi ce workers, accountants, secretaries etc.;
persuasive - for instance state offi cial, senior managers, insurance company
clerks, lawyers, businesspeople;
aesthetical - musicians, graphic artists, window-dressers, sculptors, painters,
writers, poets etc.;
intellectual - mathematicians, chemists, physicists, biologists, cyberneticists etc.
On the basis of his hitherto several investigations Holland pronounced a number
of hypotheses: persons better informed about the work environments can make a better
choice of career than persons less informed. The adequacy of choice of career is partly
a function of age because time provides more opportunities to collect information. Career
knowledge of persons with a more adequate choice of career is more differentiated and
organised than of persons with a less adequate choice of career. The volume of knowledge
about careers will be in positive correlation with the developmental hierarchy of man.
Persons will know more about careers which are at the top of his developmental
hierarchy than about careers which are at the bottom of his personal hierarchy of values.
This developmental hierarchy is explored by means of coded interest inventories.
Persons, who have an inaccurate understanding of themselves, including self-assessment,
may make inadequate decisions with regard to the extent and level of the choice.
Persons whose extent, orientation and level of understanding themselves are limited
(for instance in the relative level of intelligence) will present extremes in inadequate
choice of career; on the other hand, persons who have a relative accurate understanding
of themselves will make more adequate choices.
The relation between typological particularities of persons and types of human
activities are considered to be the theoretical basis of professional or career counselling.
The optimal approach for career counselling is the casuistic, structural approach
which thoroughly, universally and in the long term studies the individual cases from the
casuistic and prognostic aspect and compares them with professiographic analyses. It is
necessary to get to know the person comprehensively, in a team; to integrate the individual
pieces of information of his organism and components forming the structure of
his personality and to predict further development - perspective of his health condition,
personality traits and his behaviour, including his performance.
For instance when selecting and allocating people at their workplaces we should
not assign an unstable and unsettled (choleric) person to a workplace demanding predominantly
monotonous work, requiring intensive concentration and tenacity or, on the
other hand, we should not entrust a persevering but tardy person with work demanding
great adaptability and distributive attention.
The founder of the so-called technocracy school the American sociologist and
economist Thorstein Veblen (1857-1929) saw the development of the society in the application
of socially psychological knowledge. With the increasing importance of technology
a new social group emerged - the technocrats. They controlled technological
and administrative production management.
The psycho-social conditions were fully
appreciated in the theoretical-practical movement called human relation which was
founded by Professor Elton Mayo (1880 -1949), professor of Harvard University.
The problem spheres of counselling are internally close-knit by causal associations
which are hidden behind the phenomenal association of the problems. For instance,
neurotic features of the personality, defects or disorders of the personality or perfunctory
interest in the career, which had not yet become a component of the pupil's personality,
often results in maladaptation to the career, to failure in the career or studies. On the
other hand the difficulties can be remedied by way of special-interest activities focused
on adequate choice of career or studies.
In 1994 the Institute for Pedagogical-Psychological Counselling of the Czech
Republic was instituted at the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports. It resolved current
issues of pedagogical-psychological counselling, co-ordinated the system of counselling,
further education of counsellors and the transfer of professional and methodical information
from the area of pedagogical-psychological counselling. Information about the issues
of counselling services is also published in the newsletter of the Institute for Pedagogical73
Psychological Counselling of the Czech Republic and is called Educational Counselling.
The present system of pedagogical-psychological counselling involves not only
educational counsellors and state-based, church and private pedagogical psychological
counsellors, but since 1990 also special pedagogical centres focused on the welfare of
the child and juvenile with sensory, physical or mental handicap and children and juvenile
with speech impediment and so-called centres of educational care ensuring prevention
and therapy of socially pathological phenomena in children and youth and counselling
in this area, not only as out-patients but also in the form of boarding schools.
With effect from 1 April 1998 counselling services were provided at schools and
educational facilities according to the methodical letter of the Ministry of Education,
Youth and Sports Ref. No. 13409/98-24.
Since 9 February 2005 Regulation No. 72 / 2005 Sb. on Providing Counselling in
Schools and Educational Counselling Facilities applies for school advisory centres.
At the present time psychologists working in counselling centres apply both the
psychometric and clinical-psychological (casuistic) approach according to their disposition
and to a various extent.
In our opinion the main method when drawing up the psychological case diagnosis
should be the casuistic method. In concrete single events the advisory method could
prevail. Along with casuistic methods and consultations all the counselling facilities
should have at their disposal a number of other techniques, including laboratory aids.
If the consultation is to be effective and of practical importance it must fulfi l a number
of necessary assumptions: in the fi rst place it assumes somebody who really wants the advice;
assumes that he is able to comprehend the advice correctly and shows efforts and skills to implement
it and, fi nally, assumes that he will be able to implement the advice consistently.
Psychologists working in the area of school counselling, apart from psychology, must
be familiar with pedagogic and the respective school, the same as psychologists in health
service must have orientation information about medical science and the health facility.
From February 2005 the pedagogical-psychological counselling centres work in
accordance with Regulation No. 72/2005 Sb. on providing counselling in schools and
educational facilities.
The critic of the mainstream of classical and traditional psychology, the English
philosopher and socially constructionist psychologist Rom Harré, can be ranked among
contemporary post-modern psychologists important for counselling; in 1972 together
with P. F. Secord he published the book "The explanation of social behaviour" and
since then a number of publications where he attempts to propose a completely new,
so-called ethogenic psychology or ethogenetics which links up for instance with microsociology
exploring microstructures, e.g. the family, school class, working group,
team, clan, ethno-methodological school of Harold Garfi nkel (born 1917), dramaturgical
interactionism of the Canadian sociologist Erving Goffman (1922-1982) who used
theatrological terms and analogues between the psychosocial life and theory to explain
social interactions, and the theory of bipolar personal constructs of the American psychologist
George Alexander Kelly (1905-1967) who pointed out the subjective, individual
and specifi c perception, imagination, thinking and feeling of the individual persons
whose content of even common personal concepts (terms, constructs) and their contrasts
often differ from the content of these concepts and their contrasts in other people.
Particularly R. Harré criticised these departures of psychology: a mechanistic model of
man, a "Hume" concept of causality and positivistic methodology.
We recommend that counsellors respect his anthropomorphous model of man
who approaches the individual as an autonomous human being (and not as a machine,
mechanism or computer, or as a non-human living organism) which lives in a certain
not always socially just economic, sociological and political system. Post-modern psychologists
(for instance Erica Burmanová (1997) were also exceedingly interested in
emancipation of men and women and they had the impression that traditional psychology
was too patriarchal (androcentristic) and dehumanised. It also means that psychology
should be socially more useful and increase the personal potentials of the individuals
in the given social and cultural context and if necessary to contribute also to social
and economic changes and political systems.
Traditional psychology is criticised for giving preference to positivistic and
quantitative natural-scientifi c methods, for an allegedly poor respect to the diverse cultural
and social contexts of the groups and communities, to the standard of social and
political justice, for not stressing enough the efforts for social usefulness and possible
a change in social systems.
Post-modern psychologists recommend diversion from the traditional quantitative-
oriented cognitive methods of psychology and tendency towards the new, qualitative
view of the social life of people and to the exploitation of the method of discursive
analysis (description and explanation of the concrete social behaviour, conduct, state of
matters and phenomena) and semiological use of narratives (stories, accounts), to intensive
exploration of natural social interactions, everyday conversations at workplaces
and in families. They have a more positive relationship to the hitherto practical psychology
than to theoretical psychology.

The conception of team, complex and biodromal development of counselling leads
to a positive self-concept and self development, awareness of one's limitations and possibilities,
formation of abilities, use of personal capacities and experience, fi nding the correct
lifestyle, social contacts, system of desirable personal values in all stages of life.
It seems that the area of professions whose psychic and somatic demands can be
mastered by every person of average health provided he/she is interested in the profession
is expanding ( Zbyněk Bureš, 1982). Education to the majority of such professions will be
conducted particularly by schools.
Special psychological diagnosis and special psychological counselling will be of
paramount importance only for some groups out of the total population of young people.


KOHOUTEK, R. Základy užité psychologie. Brno: Akademické nakladatelství CERM, 2002. 544 s.

KOŠČO, J. a kol. Poradenská psychológia. Bratislava: Slovenské pedagogické nakladateĺstvo,
1987.446 stran

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